2012 New History
P. O. Box 1-44, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan, R. O. C.
02-2782-9555 # 226

Should ramana Pay Homage to the Monarch?

A Case Study of the Prtimoksa

Le Kang

Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica

In the Buddhist canon (prtimoksa), there are some items related to the principle of “not preaching to the person of bad manner.” However, among the various Chinese editions of these commandments, we find these items considerably different from each other, not only in letter but also in spirit. Since some of the sentences obviously contradict the Buddha’s original teachings, the authenticity of these sentences becomes suspectable. As a study of the sinicization of Buddhism, this essay analyzes the Buddha’s teachings about the relationship between ramana and laymen (including the monarch), as well as the background for the appearance of those “suspectable” sentences.


Key Words: ramana, laymen, monarch, conon